Past Issues

 GTS Digest – November 2021

Here is the November issue of GTS newsletter.

Upcoming GTS Events

Our next webinar is going live on December 3, 2021, accessible from SPE Online Education, or use the link below to direct you. 

“Geomechanical Challenges Associated with Massive Storage of CO2”  By Dr. Mark D. Zoback, Stanford University. Includes a Live Event on 03/12/2021 at 10:00 AM (EST).  

Use this link to register: SPE Online Education: Geomechanical Challenges Associated with Massive Storage of CO2

Other Geomechanics Events

Please check Events Calendar (spe.org) for a list of events in all areas. The following is a recent event; you can still check the proceedings for geomechanics related contents. 

  1. The Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference (ADIPEC)   (21ADIP), November 15-18, 2021, Abu Dhabi, UAE

The following conferences are accepting abstract.

  1. Energy in Data, Austin, Texas, USA, 20 - 23 Feb 2022, Proposals Due 20 Nov 2021 (Sat)
  2. SPE EuropEC - Europe Energy Conference featured at the 83rd EAGE Annual Conference & Exhibition Madrid, Spain, 5 - 9 Jun 2022, Proposals Due 26 Nov 2021 (Fri)
  3. SPE Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference & Exhibition Adelaide, Australia, 17 - 19 Oct 2022, Proposals Due 10 Jan 2022 (Mon)
  4. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition Houston, Texas, USA, 3 - 5 Oct 2022, 31 Proposals Due Jan 2022 (Mon)

Chair's corner

Dear technical section members and fellow professionals, hope you are doing great. To improve accessibility to our monthly digest, we made the content available via short post. Do let me (abhijit@metarocklab.com) or our communications chair (Claudia.Bonin@halliburton.com) know if you are still encountering any issues.

With uptick in commodity price, we are seeing increased E&P activities. We believe geomechanics as a discipline will add more value to E&P production operations. We would be happy to hear from you how the technical section can fulfill your need to refresh your geomechanics concepts or simply to assist you in learning new topics. Our next webinar is scheduled on Friday December 3rd, by Professor Mark Zoback, Stanford University on “Geomechanical Challenges Associated with Massive Storage of CO2”. Please reach out if you would like to propose topics for future webinars.

Finally, we are finalizing our first networking event for 2022, we will soon provide additional details.

Thank you for reading.

Guest Column – By Claudia Bonin, Halliburton

A brief review of geomechanics from recent quarter publications

Geomechanics is an area of science concerned with the engineering behavior of rocks in the subsurface; is close to the geotechnics related to soils and rocks in shallower applications such as mining. In petroleum industry it plays a valuable role in delivering knowledge on the reactive behavior of formations rocks to petroleum engineering operations and endeavors. The value of use of Geomechanics in projects however is frequently challenged from the cost perspective.

The first principles of science can help to propose and attest hypotheses (is there an effect?). However, the evidence of value are ultimately confirmed by experiments and results (beyond the expectation). Whereas there are abundant indications and claims about enhancements of petroleum engineering operations with the use of geomechanics, the challenge remains on finding the value of geomechanics on a project basis (are the enhancements repeatable?). 

A review on publications helps to make an assertion on the value of geomechanics. A simple filtering technique helped to find that in the past three months at major publishers, most of publications on geomechanics was focused on reservoir geomechanics, followed by hydraulic fracturing, and then formation evaluation, unconventional plays, wellbore integrity, drilling operations, information management and systems, and wellbore surveillance. 

Are the works by the search for effects? Key objectives including the verbs 'quantify', 'understand', etc., seem to have a direct relationship with searching for an effect of great impact on value. As I have done this brief review, I encourage every professional looking for maximizing value, to look into potential geomechanical effects (rock mechanics) at the light of first principles of the science and experience. Designing workflows and progressively testing the relevance of the effects (learning curve) may reveal unforeseen results. The first generates questions and the later generates data, and, altogether, findings and conclusions. Certainly, a review on publications should a valuable resource to enlighten planning for maxed value. What do you think?  

 

Recent Technical Articles

Here are some of the numerous articles on geomechanics this month.

  1. Carapaces of the Dnieper-Donets Basin as a New Exploration Target,  Paper presented at the SPE Eastern Europe Subsurface Conference, November 23–24, 2021

    2. An Integrated Approach to Well Logging: The Case of the Bazhenov Formation
    Paper presented at the SPE Eastern Europe Subsurface Conference, November 23–24, 2021

  2. Understanding of Vertical and Horizontal Pressure Barriers in the Naturally Fractured Carbonate Field SPE Eastern Europe Subsurface Conference, November 23–24, 2021

If you are reading this monthly digest, you likely expect something out of it. Please let us know what that is! Please use the GTS discussions to communicate with us what is your expectation.

Note: The previous issue was released in August 2021

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GTS Digest – August 2021

Here is the August issue of GTS newsletter.

Upcoming GTS Events

Our next webinar is going live on September 9th. Stay tuned for upcoming GTS Events.

Other Geomechanics Events

Here is a list of upcoming SPE events highlighting/focusing geomechanics.

  1. Offshore Technology Conference, Ongoing! Aug 16-19
  2. SPE Virtual Forum: The Next Chapter in the Eagle Ford - Learning from the Past and Opportunities for the Future, Ongoing! Aug 16-25
  3. SPE Workshop: Sand Management in Production - Common Themes and Unconventional ChallengesAug 31-Sept 2

The following conferences are accepting abstract.

  1. Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, Proposals due Set 14
  2. SPE Norway Subsurface Conference, Bergen, Norway, Proposals due Sept 27

 

Our team

Our board members work to bring you valuable information on Geomechanics. Please contact Abhijit Mitra (chair) and Claudia Bonin (communications director) or use the Contact Us menu item for any questions or comments.

Guest Column – By Yongcun Feng

Geomechanics for deep shale gas development in Sichuan Basin, China

Introduction

The shale gas reserves in China are abundant, with a geological reserve of 80.21×1012 m3 and a recoverable reserve of 12.85×1012 m3. At present, the Chinese oil companies have owned the theoretical basis and related technologies for the development of medium-deep (<3500 m) shale gas reservoirs. The shale gas resources in China are mainly located in the Sichuan Basin with great reservoir depth. Compared to shallow reservoirs, the increased depth of the shale gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin leads to high formation temperature and pressure, complex tectonic stresses, large stress difference, high rock strength, and increased rock plasticity. The critical depth of elastic-plastic transition of the shale formation is still unclear. The complicated geological conditions cause a series of challenges for geomechanical evaluation, safe drilling, high-efficiency fracturing, and EOR. Geomechanics plays an important role in these technical problems during the development of shale gas in the Sichuan Basin, and how to solve these issues using the knowledge of geomechanics is the opportunity of geomechanics. In this essay, a few key geomechanics issues in the development of shale gas in the Sichuan Basin, China, are discussed.

Fracture initiation and propagation

The deep shale gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are characterized by extensive natural fractures and relatively high anisotropies of in-situ stress and formation properties, compared to the conventional shallower shale gas reservoirs. As a result, the initiation and propagation of the fractures during hydraulic fracturing in the Sichuan Basin are very complex. In recent years, the target shale gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are becoming deeper and deeper. As a result, the high temperature and high stress cause the increased shale plasticity, leading to great difficulties in fracture initiation and propagation. The commercial development of deep shale gas in the Sichuan Basin is highly limited by the difficulties in creating an effective fracture network and SRV. Therefore, an improved hydraulic fracture model for the fractured HTHP shale gas reservoir in the Sichuan Basin is needed to obtain an accurate description of stress/strain field and fracture extension behaviors during hydraulic fracturing. Such a model is important for the design of hydraulic fracturing operations and the increase of SRV.

Physical and numerical modeling

In terms of numerical simulation, the major methods for modeling the joint fracture network extension during hydraulic fracturing include the finite element method, extended finite element method, discrete element method, and boundary element method. All of these methods have been applied in hydraulic fracturing simulations in the Sichuan Basin. The extensive bedding planes in the shale reservoir in the Sichuan Basin have a critical impact on the vertical propagation of the hydraulic fractures, which is observed by experimental and numerical investigations as well. Besides the complicated fracture extension in the lateral direction, hydraulic fractures also tend to form complex geometries in the vertical direction in the Sichuan Basin. The development of the fracture network is therefore a full 3D fracture propagation process. Conventional hydraulic fracturing models that reduce the 3D fracture network development to a 2D or a pseudo-3D case have a significant limitation when applied to the fractured and bedding shale reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin. These models cannot accurately predict the extension of the 3D fracture network, especially in the vertical direction. Thus, it is necessary to establish a full 3D geomechanical model that integrates various factors affecting the horizontal and vertical expansion of the fracture network. Then, the hydraulic fracturing operations can be optimized using the improved mode to maximize the SRV and well productivity.

Interaction between artificial and natural fractures

The shale gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin embody the characteristics of great depth, intense tectonic activity, extensive and complex development of natural fractures and beddings. The fracture extension behavior and fracture geometry during hydraulic fracturing operations are controlled by the mutual interference between hydraulically induced fractures and naturally existed discontinuities in the shale formation, such as natural fractures and bedding planes. Therefore, it is important to understand the influence of these discontinuities on the propagation path and extension scope of the hydraulic and natural fracture systems. A reliable and efficient 3D model that can simulate the complicated interactions between natural fractures and artificial fractures is still lacking.

The flowback of fracturing fluids

The flowback ratio of fracturing fluids in the deep shale gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin is much lower than the conventional shale gas reservoirs. Numerous studies on fracturing fluids flowback in the Sichuan Basin have been conducted. The fracture network (consist of artificial and natural fractures) of the shale gas reservoir has a key impact on the flowback of fracturing fluids, which is not only the space for fracturing fluid loss but also the primary path for fracturing fluid flowback. At present, the existing researches mainly focus on the fluid flowback from the primary hydraulic fracture, and the studies and understanding of the fluid flowback from the 3D fracture network are still not sufficient. The mechanisms of fracturing fluid flowback from the secondary and tertiary fractures are still poorly understood. Thus, there is a necessity for improved technical methods to understand and reveal the mechanisms of fracturing fluid flowback from the complicated fracture network for better operational design.

Long-term effectiveness of the fractures

The permeability of the shale matrix is too low for effective gas flow. The fractures are the main channels for gas flow from the matrix to the wellbore thanks to their high conductivity. The deformation and damage to the fracture surfaces and even the closure of the discrete fractures consist of artificial and natural fractures are the key factor that affects the long-term conductivity of the fracture system. With gas production, the pressure in the fracture system decreases, causing proppant crushing, proppant embedment, fracture deformation, and fracture closure. As a result, the decline of fracture conductivity is considerable, which seriously restricts the flow of the shale gas from the reservoir to the well. Advanced theoretical models are required to capture the long-term effect of rock deformation and proppant failure on fracture conductivity.

Related papers:

Geomechanical Evaluations of Deep Shale Gas Reservoir in Sichuan Basin, Western China. URTEC-2020-2443-MS.

Construction of a 3D Geomechanical Model for Development of a Shale Gas Reservoir in the Sichuan Basin. SPE-187828-PA.

Three-Dimensional Full-Field and Pad Geomechanics Modeling Assists Effective Shale Gas Field Development, Sichuan Basin, China. IPTC-18984-MS

An Integrated Geomechanics-Reservoir Modeling Workflow for Hydraulic Fracturing Optimisation and EUR Prediction for a Shale Gas Play in Sichuan Basin. SPE-181801-MS.

 

Recent Technical Articles

Geomechanics appears on tens of articles this month. Here are some of them.

  1. Michael, Andreas , and Ipsita Gupta. "A Semianalytical Modeling Approach for Hydraulic Fracture Initiation and Orientation from Perforated Wells." SPE Prod & Oper 36 (2021): 501–515. doi: https://doi.org/10.2118/204480-PA
  2. Alzahabi, Ahmed , Alexandre Trindade, A. Alexandre, Kamel, Ahmed A., Harouaka, Abdallah , Baustian, Wade , and Catherine Campbell. "Optimal Drawdown for Woodford and Mayes in the Anadarko Basin Using Data Analytics." SPE Prod & Oper 36 (2021): 572–582. doi: https://doi.org/10.2118/201660-PA
  3. Zhao, Peidong , and K. E. Gray. "Analytical and Machine-Learning Analysis of Hydraulic Fracture-Induced Natural Fracture Slip." SPE J.26 (2021): 1722–1738. doi: https://doi.org/10.2118/205346-PA

Enjoy your reading!

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GTS Digest – July 2021

Here is the July issue of GTS newsletter.

Upcoming GTS Events

Our next webinar is going live on September 9th. Stay tuned for upcoming GTS Events.

Other Geomechanics Events

Here is a list of upcoming SPE events highlighting/focusing geomechanics.

  1. SPE/AAPG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference (URTeC). 26 - 28 Jul 2021
  2. Offshore Technology Conference. 16 - 19 Aug 2021
  3. SPE Virtual Symposium: Deepwater - Raising Potential through Innovation. 31 Aug - 9 Sep 2021

The following conferences are accepting abstract.

  1. SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition. The Woodlands, Texas, USA. Proposals Due 03 Aug 2021 (Tue),

Chair’s Corner

Dear members, I would like to introduce you to the new section chair, myself (Abhijit Mitra). I am involved with the section activity since 2019 as communications chair/webmaster, seeing the section grow and the activity level to increase. Pandemic and resulting suppression of the global oil demand, and hence, prices, tried to put a leash on the activities. However, we are seeing new rays of hope and optimism all over the globe. We continue to commit to you/your fellow professional’s need for reliable source of information on geomechanics principles and best practices, for drilling, completion, reservoir and oilfield geoscience in general. If you want us to focus on anything, whether looking for a geomechanics best practice document, or webinar/online education resources on any topic, please let us know. You can reach me at abhijit@metarocklab.com. You can also contact our new communications chair, Claudia Bonin De Oliveira (claudia.bonin@halliburton.com).

Coming back to the level of activities, we had our last webinar from Dr. Bryce Lecampion, EPFL Switzerland, on “Geomechanics for Geothermal Energy Development”. It was posted online on June 10th with 100+ live attendees. Our next webinar would be offered by Dr. Christopher Wibberly, Total, titled “Advances in Fault Zone Structure and Property Prediction: Applications to Reservoir Geomechanics”, going live on September 9th. Please see above on how to register for the event. We are also planning to host our first live event post-pandemic during SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and hoping to share updates on that soon. Stay tuned and enjoy the summer!

Guest Column Sudarshan Govindarajan, MetaRock Laboratories, Houston, USA

Oilfield Geomechanics: A strategic approach for uncertain times

Heuzé & Goodman (1968)* in a report to NASA addressing the potential experimental design for lunar material (prior to the Apollo mission in 1969), summarized from a paper by professor D.U. Deere the below steps in the engineering design of rock structures:

    • Delineating the boundary conditions (initial insitu stress conditions, geometries involved etc) 
  • Determination of the engineering properties of the materials (geomaterials being highly variable in contrast to manmade engineering materials)
  • Selection of the design and prediction of behavior (modelling the effects of perturbation of the existing state of the system).
  • Assessment of the predicted behavior (model) based on acceptability of performance.

It was stressed that the engineering behavior design and prediction would be “no better than the material properties being fed to the equations'' governing the model. Drawing on a previous article by Thomas Finkbeiner+ from the April 2019 edition of the newsletter and Richard Plumb’s++ article from the September 2018 edition:

  • Modelling requires time and investment in data acquisition and interpretation.
  • Predefined workflows have potential efficiency, but a majority of participants from across different geo-industries at the 4d seismic modelling conference, felt there was over reliance on predefined workflows.
  • Early, iterative modelling can identify deficiencies in data and serve as a risk mitigation strategy.
  • Coherence, integrity, and applicability of the model has to be maintained through transparent and sustained communication between all stakeholders.

As the article is being penned, the rollercoaster that is the O&G industry, is on the ascent again. Time has shown that the rise to the 100$ barrel and its sustenance at the early part of the last decade was a prime candidate for streamlining. The low prices in the latter half of the last decade, even if we neglect the pandemic, have curtailed the budgets of the operators and guided service companies towards innovation.  The systematic acquisition of material property data and predetermined workflows have a robust strength to them but require time and capital. The systematic method sometimes also results in gathering of data which is redundant and not having strategic consequence.

The importance of identifying deficiencies in the data acquisition and strategically addressing those deficiencies has become of ever more growing importance.  In practical terms, this would mean making the critical measurements required to increase the accuracy of the model, earlier in the workflow, and make an optimal number of measurements at the appropriate time. The illustration shown below, devised by Robert Patterson, highlights the paradigm shift from the systematic to the strategic mode of operation. Field data such as seismic or well logs have set resolutions and associated higher uncertainties and lie at the high end of the inverted triangle. The measured data from representative rock material, tested under representative conditions has the least uncertainty associated with it and is at the low end of the uncertainty taper. The strategic acquisition of data based on a workflow applicable to the anticipated field challenge instead of a systematic acquisition would enable a more targeted and economical approach.  

Figure 1. Bob’s Uncertainty Taper, from Robert Patterson, personal communications.

The aim should therefore be to ensure an optimal identification and acquisition of information so that the value of the information can be capitalized on, at the appropriate time. This streamlined workflow, would require an investment in the form of transparency and trust between operators and service companies so as to meet desired objectives of all stakeholders - from field engineers and modelers to people creating the material testing protocol for representative characterization. The aspired payoff would be a streamlined, integrated workflow which would be economical and addresses the relevant challenges which could potentially arise in the field. 

Technical Articles

  1. Realtime Drilling Geomechanics Aids Safe Drilling through Unstable Shales and Channel Sands of Wara Formations, Minagish Field, West Kuwait , SPE-200929-MS
  2. Integrated Geomechanics, Geology, Petrophysics and Mineralogy Model for Successful Deep HPHT Gas Well Drilling , SPE-201057-MS
  3. Geomechanics Insights for Successful Well Delivery in Complex Kutch - Saurashtra Offshore Region ​, SPE-201039-MS
Enjoy your reading!​​​​


GTS Digest – September 2019

What’s New

Welcome back to the latest issue of GTS monthly newsletter. We have our fourth industry interview featuring Dr. Steve Wilson, Apache Corporation (soon to be available online). This month’s guest column is by Terry Palisch, Carbo and SPE Completions technical Director on proceedings at Casing Deformation panel Session during URTEC 2019. Look for some exciting announcements from our section chair, Dr. Neal Nagel below. Finally, submit your abstracts and watch out for upcoming technical events.

Submit your abstract for SPE Norway Subsurface Conference, 22 April, 2020, Bergen, Norway by October 16, 2019.

Submit your abstract for SPE Europec featured at 82nd EAGE Conference and Exhibition, 8-11 June, 2020, Amsterdam, The Netherlands by October 16, 2019.

Submit your abstract for 54th US Rock mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, June 28-July 1, 2020, Golden, Colorado, USA by November 1, 2019.

Submit your abstract for 2020 SPE Trinidad and Tobago Section Energy Resources Conference “Shaping the Future: Technology, Processes and Innovation”, June 29-30 2020, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago by November 7, 2019.

Submit your abstract for SPE Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, 20-22 October, 2020, Perth, Australia by January 13, 2020.

Chair’s Corner

Summer has come and gone. Kids are back in school. And the weather is suggesting hints of a change (only hints, unfortunately). As such, we have re-started the GTS monthly newsletter. Welcome back!

We have completed our initial four-part Industry Interview series with Dr. J.C. Roegiers, Dr. John McLennan, Dr. Maurice Dusseault, and Dr. Steve Willson. We discussed their entry into the world of petroleum geomechanics, their thoughts on the current state of the industry, and their thoughts about where petroleum geomechanics may go in the future. I think these interviews, which can be found via the SPE web site, are important commentaries on petroleum geomechanics both from a historical perspective but also from a human-interest perspective. Please take the chance to listen to these.

I am in the planning stage of following these interviews with those from a younger generation of petroleum geomechanicists. More information will be available soon.

We are continuing plans for a networking event at the HFTC conference in The Woodlands next February. Please mark your calendar to attend. These networking events serve as a nice opportunity to catch-up with colleagues as well as get updates on the GTS and, often, listen to a very interesting invited speaker. If you or your company would like to support/sponsor the networking event, please contact one of the GTS board members (including myself).

As I have mentioned previously, the GTS always has opportunities for volunteer support. These efforts require as little as several hours of effort per month but are rewarding and provide recognition. Please consider contributing.

I would also again invite all of you who read this to take a moment and respond to me directly (nnagel@ofgeomech.com) with your thoughts on GTS and suggested activities.

Thanks for reading.

Upcoming Events

  1. SPE ATCE, 30 September – 2 October, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

  2. SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference, 22 – 24 October, Moscow, Russia.

  3. SPE/ICoTA Workshop: Refracturing – A Valuable Technology for Today’s Market, 5 – 6 November, San Antonio, Texas, USA.

  4. ADIPEC Abu Dhabi International petroleum Exhibition & Conference, 11 – 14 November, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

  5. SPE/AAPG/SEG Asia Pacific Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, 18 – 19 November, Brisbane, Australia.

  6. IPTC 2020, 13 – 15 January, 2020, Dhahran, KSA.

Guest Column – Terry Palisch, Global Engineering Director – Carbo, 2019-2021 SPE Completions Technical Director

Recap of the Casing Deformation Panel Session at URTeC 2019 Denver

On Tuesday, July 23rd, at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference (URTeC) in Denver, CO, a Panel Session was held, entitled “Hydraulic Fracturing and Its Effect on Well Integrity”.  The panel was moderated by Matthew Poole (Shell, and URTeC Committee Member) and Terry Palisch (CARBO, and SPE Completions Technical Director), and featured 5 distinguished industry panelists – George King (Viking Engineering), Dr. Neal Nagel (Oilfield Geomechanics), Dr. Will Fleckenstein (Colorado School of Mines), Eric Schmelzl (NCS Multistage) and Jay Brenner (WPX Energy).  The panelists brought a wide range of exposure and experience, and each provided a unique perspective on the topic.

Terry opened the session by explaining the impetus and background for this panel.  Over the past 1-2 years, there has been a significant amount of discussion on the SPE Connect page about casing failures in unconventional wells.  A quick, unscientific poll suggested that it is relatively wide spread across the basins, and the severity ranges between a nuisance for future well access to complete loss of a portion of the lateral, or even the well.  He stressed that many operators express concern, but few want to discuss in public.  The goal of the panel was to promote open discussion and use it as a potential stepping stone for future discussions.

George King presented first and concentrated primarily on the subject of fracture driven interactions between wells and their potential impact on well integrity.  He discussed potential options for minimizing these interactions, as well as showed some pictures of erosion in the upper section of the well.  Neal Nagel followed by concentrating on the Geomechanics side of the problem and presented further on the primary causes of these deformations.  He then focused on the impact of shear failure, noting that while there may be things we can do to prevent (or at least minimize) the shear events, in the end, if the earth decides to move, there is very little we can do to prevent/mitigate it.

Will Fleckenstein presented studies that they have done using Finite Element Analysis, to model non-uniform loading on the casing / cement.  He suggested that our cement jobs in the lateral, may be an area where we can concentrate on in the future.  He also noted that a large contrast between insitu stress and pore/applied pressure, in combination with a cement channel or void increases the likelihood of casing deformation.  Eric Schmelzl presented numerous field examples dating back to 2013, where they have seen casing deformations during their operations.  They have found no direct correlation to recorded seismic events, but typically see the deformations at or above active frac intervals, suggesting areas of the greatest impact of pressure and temperature.

Lastly, Jay Brenner provided insights from an operator’s perspective.  He commented that this is a multi-disciplinary issue, and that when performing well design, one must account for all of the scenarios and parameters that we will be placing the wellbore from the initial completion through the stimulation and production.  Companies must have a workflow in place that addresses all of these from the beginning, to avoid costly problems in the future.  After the presentations, the 200+ attendees continued for an hour of lively discussion both verbal and via the URTeC app. It was apparent that this topic was of great interest and needs to be addressed by the industry as a whole. Planning is now underway to hold an SPE Summit on this topic in 2020.

Recent Papers

  1. Stress Determination from Logs. Why the Simple Uniaxial Strain Model is Physically Flawed but Still Gives Relatively Good Matches to High Quality Stress Measurements Performed on Several Fields Offshore Norway, ARMA-2019-0078.
  2. Compaction-Induced Sand Control Failures in the Deepwater Gulf of Mexico, ARMA-2019-1968.
  3. Lost Circulations Due to Fault Reactivation and the Implications on Stress Characterization, ARMA-2019-0492.
  4. Improving Wellbore Strengthening Property of Water-Based Drilling Fluid by Addition of Barite Nanoparticles, ARMA-2019-0498.
  5. Overcoming Subsurface and Batch Drilling Challenges in a Heavily Faulted Deepwater Environment, ARMA-2019-0382.

GTS Digest – July 2019

What’s New

The second podcast/industry interview of the year from Dr. John McLennan, University of Utah, USA is available now. 
GTS was present at the DEVEX 2019 on May 7 - 8, Aberdeen, UK. In addition to the technical presentations, masterclasses, Core, extra events and exhibition, the conference also featured posters from various service companies. Jackeline Rodrigues, Prorgram Chair, GTS, mentioned that "The poster session at DEVEX 2019 offers us a great opportunity to disseminate our mission and primary objectives. We also want to take the opportunity to invite conference attendees to become active members of this organization for enhancing knowledge and fostering cooperation and discussions in geomechanics – related issues and technologies." Pictured below is Jackeline in front of the GTS poster.

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Watch out for the poll questions on the GTS home page, we would have more poll questions coming soon.

Submit your abstract for SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 4 - 6 February 2020, The Woodlands, Texas, USA by July 17, 2019.

Submit your abstract for SPE/IATMI Asia pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, 29 – 31 october 2019, Bali, Indonesia by July 12, 2019.

Submit your abstract for SPE Canada Heavy Oil Conference, 18 – 19 March, 2020, Calgary, Alberta, Canada by August 19, 2019.

Chair’s Corner

I am pleased to see some of our podcasts/industry interviews coming to fruition. Please look for the interviews with Dr. JC Rogiers and Dr. John McLennan on the history and future of petroleum geomechanics. We will add two more interviews to this series to round out the opinions, so look for these in the next couple of months.

The current plan is to conduct 3 or 4 interviews on a similar topic with similar questions. The plan is to draft the next set of interview questions for fall interviews shortly, so if you have a topic of interest, please let me know.

Plans for a networking event at the URTeC conference in Denver in July fell through due to a lack of sponsorship. These networking events serve as a nice opportunity to catch-up with colleagues as well as get updates on the GTS and, often, listen to a very interesting invited speaker. If you or your company would like to support/sponsor the networking event, please contact one of the GTS board members (including myself).

As I have mentioned previously, the GTS always has opportunities for volunteer support. These efforts require as little as several hours of effort per month but are rewarding and provide recognition. We have, for example, volunteers for the communications sub-committee, which is tasked with expanding the reach of GTS communications into the SPE community. Other volunteers are welcome for tasks such as: 1) review and updating the historical geomechanics documents (written or video) with SPE; 2) support for webinar and Podcast development; 3) support for workshop development. If you are interested, please contact me or one of the GTS board members.

I would again invite all of you who read this to take a moment and respond to me directly (nnagel@ofgeomech.com) with your thoughts on GTS and suggested activities.

Thanks for reading. Please have a safe and enjoyable summer!

Upcoming Events

  1. URTEC Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, 22-24 July, Denver, Colorado, USA.

  2. SPE ATCE, 30 September – 2 October, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

  3. SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference, 22 – 24 October, Moscow, Russia.

  4. SPE/ICoTA Workshop: Refracturing – A Valuable Technology for Today’s Market, 5 – 6 November, San Antonio, Texas, USA.

  5. ADIPEC Abu Dhabi International petroleum Exhibition & Conference, 11 – 14 November, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

  6. SPE/AAPG/SEG Asia Pacific Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, 18 – 19 November, Brisbane, Australia.

  7. IPTC 2020, 13 – 15 January, 2020, Dhahran, KSA.

Guest Column – Marisela Sanchez-Nagel, Oilfield Geomechanics LLC, Houston, USA

Summary Report on SPE Workshop: Challenges to Develop Unconventional Resources in Columbia, 28 – 29 March, 2019, Bucaramanga, Colombia

SPE organized successfully on 28 -29 March, 2019 a workshop on Challenges to Develop Unconventional Resources in Bucaramanga, Colombia. This workshop brought together technology teams from universities, operators and service companies, government regulatory agencies and industry practitioners to discuss strategies to evaluate and develop recoverable unconventional resources in Colombia.  This is crucial topic to the Colombia Oil and Gas industry in the urgent search for additional reserves.

The workshop was very well attended with a total of 111 participants from five different countries: Argentina (7), Canada (10), Colombia (67), Ecuador (2) and USA (25).

The topics covered comprised the state of the practice of unconventionals in Colombia and the regulatory and environment aspects. After that, the workshop focused on related disciplines such as geomechanics (in particular to the tough stress conditions typical in Colombia), drilling, completions, reservoir characterization, monitoring, testing methodologies, cases histories and new technologies.

In particular, the Geomechanics session focused on its impact on drilling and borehole stability in unconventionals and the geomechanical challenges on unconventional shale reservoirs in Colombia, including HF considerations for sustainable unconventional resource development.

The last session examined how industry and academia are trying to increase oil and gas recoveries with techniques that involve surfactants, nanofluids and huff and puff gas injection. The wrap-up session summarized the learnings acquired during the two days of the workshop.

Recent Papers
  1. A Newly Developed Approach to Evaluate Rock Brittleness for Hydraulic Fracturing Optimization in Shale Gas, SPE-195280-MS.

  2. Reservoir Stress Path Measured During Depletion and Re-Pressurization in the Valhall Field, SPE-195633-MS.

  3. Quantification of Sand Production Using a Pressure-Gradient Based Sand-Failure Criterion, SPE-185009-PA.

  4. Using Geomechanics to Reveal the Production Controlling Factors of the Tectonically Stressed Jurasic Tight Gas Reservoir in Western China, SPE-195453-MS.

  5. Orientation Criteria of Fracture Initiation in Poroelastic Media: Application in Unconventional Reservoirs, SPE-195494-MS.

GTS Digest – May 2019

What’s New

Here are deadlines for few upcoming conferences.

Submit your abstract for SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, 17 - 19 March 2020, Bogota, Colombia by June 4, 2019.

Submit your abstract for SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 4 - 6 February 2020, The Woodlands, Texas, USA by July 10, 2019.

Submit your abstract for IADC/SPE International Drilling Conference and Exhibition, 3 – 5 March 2020, Galveston, Texas, USA by June 4, 2019.

Submit your abstract for SPE International Conference and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, 19 - 21 February 2020, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA by June 12, 2019.

Chair’s Corner

Our first podcast (“Industry Interview”) is “in the can”, which is old Hollywood film lingo for those not familiar with it (I once gave a seminar at the University of Oklahoma where my daughter and her future husband were attending and used the phrases “like lemmings off a cliff” and as basic as “motherhood and apple pie” and was informed later that “no one” understood what these meant!). Anyway, we have successfully completed our first interview.

Our first interview was with Dr. JC Roegiers, who is Professor Emeritus at the University of Oklahoma. In this 30-minute interview, titled “Capturing our Geomechanics Legacy to Understand Its Future” we discussed: how geomechanics got started and has changed from the early days to the present, how engineering education has changed and what the current geomechanics education looks like, JC’s thoughts on geomechanics for Unconventionals and the status and importance of new technologies and compute power, JC’s involvement in professional organizations like ARMA and their role, and finally JC’s views of the future of petroleum geomechanics.

The link for the interview will be posted soon, so please look for this. Also, look for two or three other industry interviews on the same topics from other key industry professionals. Then, based upon the interest to the interview concept, we will look at a new geomechanics topic area with three or four other key professionals.

As always, I welcome your feedback on the newsletter and the GTS (nnagel@ofgeomech.com). In addition, please promote the GTS to friends and colleagues.

Upcoming Events

  1. 53rd US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, 23 – 26 June, New York City, USA.
  2. SPE Workshop: Maximise Asset value Through Geomechanics, 2-3 July, Kuala Lampur, Malayasia.
  3. URTEC Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, 22-24 July, Denver, Colorado, USA.

Guest Column – Andreina Guedez, MetaRock Laboratories, Houston, USA

Summary of 8 Simposio Internacional de Geomechanics, 6 – 10 May, 2019, Bucaramanga, Colombia

The objective of the symposium was to learn how geomechanics can be utilized to add value in E&P operations. In Columbia, the prevailing stress regime is complex, owing to presence of mountains. This coupled with presence of critically stressed fractures and over-pressured formations made the hydraulic fracturing a complex operation. The symposium intended to shed some light and disseminate knowledge from the lessons learnt elsewhere.

The symposium attendees were primarily geomechanics professionals with substantial presence from faculty, student and researchers from the Universidad Industrial de Santander, as well as drilling, completions and petrophysics specialists. The symposium included four short-courses, 19 presentations and a panel discussion. The speakers represented various operating companies from Colombia and Argentina as well as the service companies, along with the university. A number of presentations touched upon stress regime and critically stressed fractures. Wellbore stability and wellbore strengthening in offshore operations were discussed as well.

The panel discussion was mainly focused on the challenges being faced by Colombia in production from unconventional. In Columbia, the development of unconventional reservoirs just began. The participants were asked what they thought to be the main difference between the conventional and unconventional reservoirs. The risks involved in hydraulic fracturing operation was discussed as well. Pollution of groundwater is thought of a major roadblock against fracking although this has not been proved conclusively. Maintaining wellbore integrity and poor cementing job was another area of concern, although this is applicable to conventional reservoirs as well. Finally, the risks of frack flowback water and their mitigation was discussed.

Recent Papers
  1. The Impact of Stress Shadowing and Geomechanical Effects on Gas Production From Marcellus Shale, SPE 195250-MS
  2. Understanding Loss Mechanisms – The Key to Successful Drilling in Depleted Reservoirs? SPE 195605-MS
  3. Rate of penetration (ROP) optimization in drilling with vibration control, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, Volume 67, July 2019, Pages 71-81
  4. A microseismic-based fracture properties characterization and visualization model for the selection of infill wells in shale reservoirs, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering. Volume 67, July 2019, Pages 147-159

GTS Digest – April 2019

What’s New

Watch out for the upcoming podcasts announcements and second networking event of the year during URTeC at Denver. Also, here are deadlines for few upcoming conferences.

Submit your abstract for SPE/AAPG/SEG Asia pacific Unconventional resources Technology Conference, 18-19 November 2019, Brisbane, Australia by April 25, 2019.

Submit your abstract for SPE Thermal Well Integrity and Design Symposium, 19 - 21 November 2019, Banff, Alberta, Canada by May 7, 2019.

Submit your abstract for SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, 17 - 19 March 2020, Bogota, Colombia by June 4, 2019.

Submit your abstract for SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 4 - 6 February 2020, The Woodlands, Texas, USA by July 10, 2019.

Submit your abstract for IADC/SPE International Drilling Conference and Exhibition, 3 – 5 March 2020, Galveston, Texas, USA by June 4, 2019.

Submit your abstract for SPE International Conference and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, 19 - 21 February 2020, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA by June 12, 2019.

Chair’s Corner

The GTS is continuing to develop new ways to support our members! I am excited to see some of our “podcasts” coming to fruition in the next month or so. I think these will be both informative and fun! Within this podcast format, we are interviewing key members of the petroleum geomechanics community to get their take on historical, as well as current, events and developments within the petroleum geomechanics community. As always, if you would like to nominate someone for the interviews, please drop me a line.

Also, we are finalizing efforts for our networking event at the URTeC conference in Denver in July. These networking events serve as a nice opportunity to catch-up with colleagues as well as get updates on the GTS and, often, listen to a very interesting invited speaker. If you or your company would like to support/sponsor the networking event, please contact one of the GTS board members (including myself).

The GTS always has opportunities for volunteer support. These efforts require as little as several hours of effort per month but are rewarding and provide recognition. We have, for example, volunteers for the communications sub-committee, which is tasked with expanding the reach of GTS communications into the SPE community. Other volunteers are welcome for tasks such as: 1) review and updating the historical geomechanics documents (written or video) with SPE; 2) support for webinar and Podcast development; 3) support for workshop development. If you are interested please contact me or one of the GTS board members.

I would again invite all of you who read this to take a moment and respond to me directly (nnagel@ofgeomech.com) with your thoughts on GTS and suggested activities.

Thanks for reading. Please be safe.

Upcoming Events

  1. 8 Simposio Internacional de Geomecánica, 6-10 May 2019, Bucaramanga, Colombia.

  2. SPE Norway One Day Seminar, 14 May, 2019, Bergen, Norway.

  3. SPE Workshop: Maximise Asset value Through Geomechanics, 2-3 July, Kuala Lampur, Malayasia.

  4. URTEC Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, 22-24 July, Denver, Colorado, USA.

Guest Column – Thomas Finkbeiner, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

The Future of 4D Subsurface Modelling: Reflections from a Multi-Sector Conference

In February this year, the Geological Society of London held a conference entitled 4D Subsurface Modelling: Predicting The Future. Its objective was a novel one: To explore the lessons to be gained by comparing the four industrial geology sectors: Oil & Gas, Mining, Civil Engineering and Geothermal.

At the heart of this conference lay a question: “If Geoscientists strive for an integrated view of the Earth beneath our feet, why don’t we build fully-shared earth models?”

While the construction of elaborate 3D models of the subsurface through time is seemingly commonplace throughout these industries, we wanted to understand what were the driving forces in each industry, what the models are used for and how they are perceived to generate value.

Outputs from the main session talks are supported by the results of several break-out workshops during the event as well as polling of attendees via the Mentimeter smartphone app.

Principal insights from this animated and engaging 2-day event can be broadly summarized under four areas:

  1. Common Concerns across Industries
  • How to assure the quality of the rich variety of inputs that go into these models
  • Limitations of 2D screens: We want visualization which mimics the 4D subsurface
  • As complexity grows, capturing and communicating both knowledge and uncertainty
  • Powerful standard workflows offer efficiencies, but may stifle creativity:
  • Polling results: 75% of participants believed industries are overly reliant on pre-defined workflows
  • Modelling practices need to reconcile deterministic and probabilistic approaches (i.e., hybrid models) within a project
  1. Learning from Each Other
  • Risk-assuring geomechanics is notably less developed in oil & gas than other industries.
  • Engineering geologists want to help their compatriots, especially in petroleum. These are professional communities that don’t often mix
  • Mining has historically had a sense of inferiority relative to O&G, but in terms of 4D site modelling is progressive in its use of technology and has strong links with civil engineering
  • National surveys have learnt that 3D modelling is their most powerful public communication tool. This is a vital factor in contested or urban environments
  1. Barriers to a Coherent & Integrated 4D Picture
  • Reconciling different modelling components of a model is as much about people and processes as it is about technology
  • Insufficient collaboration or understanding between the disciplines building the various components of the model can be fatal to its success
  • Not sufficiently communicating what matters in a model and why may lead to their curtailment since they are no longer useful for decision-making
  • Suspicions over the extraordinary complexity of some model-building, especially where multiple versions are created and the need for distilling down ‘knowns’
  1. The View of the Ultimate Decision-Makers
  • Senior leaders and investors are primarily driven by how the model will influence their decisions. This will likely boil down to a limited set of critical factors
  • Those building the model need to frame the construction of their model to addressing those decision choices. Uncertainty is not necessarily a bad thing, but poor thinking is
  • Subsurface modellers need to realize that the model only forms part of a wider picture of value, so the degree of effort expended on it becomes a function of that importance
  • Communicating the meaning of a model is ultimately as important as what formed it. That meaning is as much about what is not known as what is

Remaining questions that came out of the event and which we believe are worthy of further debate are:

  • How do we prove 3D/4D modelling is effective? What over-arching process decides what information goes into the model?
  • How can we make the job of technical decision-makers easier by making what is known/not known more obvious within the model?
  • Are experts getting lost in the details and lose track of conveying the important aspects of a 3D model?
  • How do we best communicate across disciplines, up to management and beyond?
  • Is modelling on 2D screens a limitation to critical thinking and communication? The same for over-distilling results in Powerpoint?
  • What about presenting inside the model? Either in the software or starting to use 3D holographic tools (e.g. augmented reality) as standard practice?
  • How do we encourage and sustain the fruitful dialogue with other industrial sectors with whom we can share unsuspected and innovative insights?
Recent Papers
  1. Dynamic Wellbore Stability Analysis Under Tripping Operations, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-019-01745-4
  2. 3D Reservoir-Scale Forward Geomechanical Modeling of Differential Compaction Fractures, SPE 195079-MS
  3. Real-Time Pore Pressure Prediction in Depleted Reservoirs Using Regression Analysis and Artificial Neural Networks, SPE-194851-MS


GTS Digest – February 2019

What’s New

The first GTS networking event during HFTC conference at The Woodlands, Texas was a success (see picture below, details on Chair’s Corner section). The guest column by Edvard Omdal provides a summary of GTS membership summary. Also, take a look at the deadline for upcoming conferences.

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Submit your abstract for IPTC 2020, 13-15 January, 2020, Dhahran, KSA, by March 4, 2019.

Submit your abstract for SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference, 22-24 October 2019, Moscow, Russia by March 11, 2019.

Submit your abstract for OTC Brasil, 29-31 October 2019, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil by April 2, 2019.

Submit your abstract for ADIPEC, 11-14 November 2019, Abu Dhabi, UAE by April 10, 2019.

Chair’s Corner

The GTS hosted a very nice networking meeting for about 40 members during the HFTC conference in The Woodlands in early February. Carl Montgomery of NSI gave a well-appreciated presentation on the concepts associated with Kiel Fracs. Thanks also to OilField Geomechanics LLC for sponsoring the event.

Carl’s presentation was very timely as there has been an upswing in interest in the potential benefits behind hesitation fracturing (either by varying the injection rate or completely shutting down and restarting injection during a given stimulation stage). Carl’s presentation will be available from SPE shortly.

Plans are currently progressing for another networking meeting at the URTeC conference in Denver in July. Stay tuned for additional information in this opportunity.

The goal of the GTS is to serve its members through support of geomechanics training, education, and competence building for both new-hires and old hands. Look for new webinars, workshops and even Podcasts going forward.

The GTS has opportunities for volunteer support. We have, for example, volunteers for the communications sub-committee, which is tasked with expanding the reach of GTS communications into the SPE community. Other volunteers are welcome for tasks such as: 1) review and updating the historical geomechanics documents (written or video) with SPE; 2) support for webinar and Podcast development; 3) support for workshop development. If you are interested please contact me or one of the GTS board members.

I would again invite all of you who read this to take a moment and respond to me directly (nnagel@ofgeomech.com) with your thoughts on GTS and suggested activities.

Thanks for reading. Please be safe.

Upcoming Events

  1. SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, 5-7 March 2019, The Hague, Netherlands.

  2. International Petroleum Technology Conference, 26-28 March 2019, Beijing, China. 

  3. 8 Simposio Internacional de Geomecánica, 6-10 May 2019, Bucaramanga, Colombia.

  4. SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference, 22-24 October 2019, Moscow, Russia.

Guest Column – by Edvard Omdal, Membership Chairperson

We took a moment and take a look at our membership demography. Out of the 150k+  members in SPE, about 10% are affiliated with the GTS. Our members are diversified across age and space, with a stronghold in the Gulf Coast North Americas followed by the Middle East and North Sea regions (see Figure 1 below for breakup by region and Figure 4 for age-wise breakup). Our members cover all branches of the industry, from academia to the operating companies. IOCs employ most of the members followed by service/manufacturing companies (see Figure 5).

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Fig - 1: professionals by region

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Fig - 2: Members by age group

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Fig - 3: Professionals by company category

Geomechanics affiliation and interest are further found in various disciplines. The GTS members are mostly working reservoir challenges, followed by drilling and completion as well as production and operation (see Figure 6 for membership breakup by technical discipline). Also recognized are the HSE and Management and Information disciplines. The importance of handling the geomechanics related hazards and risks is what will grant our industry the license to operate.

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Fig - 4: Membership breakup by technical discipline

Recent Papers

  1. Apparent Toughness Anisotropy Induced by Roughness of in Situ Stress: A Mechanism that Hinders Vertical Growth of Hydraulic Fractures and Its Simplified Modeling, SPE-194359-MS
  2. Solving the Hydraulic Fracturing Puzzle in the HPHT KG Basin of India with Geomechanics-Enabled Design and Execution, SPE-194315-MS


GTS Digest – January 2019

What’s New

Wishing you all a very happy 2019! As you will see in the Chair’s message below, we are hosting the first GTS networking event during HFTC conference at The Woodlands, Texas. Look the "Upcoming Event" section in the home page for the announcement. Please RSVP to asantos@spe.org by January 25th if you are planning to attend. Look for the guest column by Edvard Omdal, our new board member. Also, take a look at the deadline for upcoming conferences.

Submit your abstract for SPE ATCE, 30 September-2 October 2019, Calgary, Canada by January 21, 2019.

Submit your abstract for 8 Simposio Internacional de Geomecánica, 6-10 May 2019, Bucaramanga, Colombia by January 27, 2019.

Submit your abstract for SPE Workshop: Oilfield Geomechanics, 26-27 February, 2019, Saint-Petersbourg, Russia, by February 5, 2019.
Submit your abstract for IPTC 2020, 13-15 January, 2020, Dhahran, KSA, by March 4, 2019.

Submit your abstract for SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference, 22-24 October 2019, Moscow, Russia by March 11, 2019.

Submit your abstract for OTC Brasil, 29-31 October 2019, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil by April 2, 2019.

Submit your abstract for ADIPEC, 11-14 November 2019, Abu Dhabi, UAE by April 10, 2019.

Chair’s Corner

Welcome to the initial 2019 newsletter of the SPE Geomechanics Technical Section. I hope you had a safe and successful 2018 and have great plans for 2019!

I am – and the other board members of the GTS – are excited about 2019. We have lots of plans and activities to support the petroleum geomechanics community. In particular, look for the networking opportunities both at the Hydraulic Fracturing Technical Conference (HFTC) in the The Woodlands at the beginning of February and at URTeC in the summer.

Personally, I am excited about the ability to promote petroleum geomechanics both via webinars and the new SPE podcasts. For the webinars, if you have not already viewed them, I would encourage you to view the 3-part webinar on petroleum geomechanics that the GTS produced last fall. I think these provide an excellent and easy-to-understand introduction to the background and importance of petroleum geomechanics. If you have questions or suggestions after viewing these, please feel free to contact me or a GTS board member.

I also look forward to hosting a number of podcasts in 2019. I think the idea of a podcast – where I can interview well-known geomechanics technical experts on a host of topics in an informal setting – is a great way to capture timely insights from industry experts.

As always, I welcome your feedback on the newsletter and the GTS (nnagel@ofgeomech.com). In addition, please promote the GTS to friends and colleagues.

Upcoming Events

  1. SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 5-7 February 2019, The Woodlands, Texas, USA.

  2. The Geological Society of London’s 4D Subsurface Modelling: Predicting the Future, 20-21 February 2019, London, UK.

  3. SPE Workshop: Tight Gas - Challenges and Opportunities25 - 27 Feb 2019, Muscat, Oman.

  4. SPE Workshop: Oilfield Geomechanics, 26-27 February, 2019, Saint-Petersbourg, Russia.

  5. SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference, 22-24 October 2019, Moscow, Russia.

  6. SPE Workshop: Sand and Carbonate Solids Control and Management - Towards Excellence in Integrated Solutions for Maximum Value Creation, 18 - 19 February 2019, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  7. SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, 5-7 March 2019, The Hague, Netherlands.

  8. International Petroleum Technology Conference, 26-28 March 2019, Beijing, China.

Guest Column – by new GTS Board Member Edvard Omdal

I’d like to take this opportunity to introduce myself and the geomechanical challenges I am involved with over in Norway. I’m with ConocoPhillips Norway, working the legacy chalk fields in the Greater Ekofisk Area in the North Sea. The Ekofisk Field, as you may know, has become sort of a textbook example of reservoir compaction. Before joining ConocoPhillips back in 2009, I did my PhD on the geomechanical behavior of chalk, at the University in Stavanger. My aim was to contribute to the understanding of how these high porosity chalk fields compact, and why.

Geomechanics is thus involved in most engineering disciplines while developing these fields. From Reservoir Engineering with drive mechanism, dynamic permeability and potential EOR, to Well Planning in terms of well life and well placement. The drilling window, for example, becomes dynamic in a compacting environment, dependent on the stress arches set up by reservoir compaction. Geomechanics is also critical when planning for permanent plug and abandonment of past wells as well as for subsurface containment of fluids. Great resources are invested in monitoring of the fields. The permanent 4D seismic system is a great tool for tracking the geomechanical processes ongoing, like the compaction-to-subsidence ratio (CSRI). Ultimately, the infrastructure is affected as soon as the compaction shows up as subsidence on the seafloor.

Now, even in great assets like Ekofisk, geomechanics engineers can sometimes find themselves a bit one-man-deep at times. And here is where the GTS comes in handy, as it serves as a technical network to reach out to for new angles, inspiration, and support. In fact, the major operators on the Norwegian Continental Shelf are organizing a local Geomechanical Network. This network host biannual meetings, serving a similar function as GTS, just in a more local manner. For those in GTS that have their engagement on the NCS, feel free to contact me if interested.

Finally, I’m excited to be able to contribute on the board of the GTS, and hope for great interactions going forward.

Recent Papers

  1. Improved Wellbore Stability in North Sea Lark and Horda Shales Through Shale/Fluid-Compatibility Optimization, SPE-184661-PA
  2. The Role of Elasto-Plasticity in Cavity Shape and Sand Production in Oil and Gas Wells, SPE-187225-PA
  3. A Novel Approach to Borehole-Breathing Investigation in Naturally Fractured Formations,SPE-189661-PA
  4. Application of T-matrix model for static moduli approximation from dynamic moduli determined by sonic well logging, International Journal of Rock mechanics and Mining Sciences, Volume 112December 2018, Pages 281-289.
  5. Effect of rock anisotropy on wellbore stresses and hydraulic fracture propagation, International Journal of Rock mechanics and Mining Sciences, Volume 112December 2018, Pages 369-384.
  6. Wellbore breakout prediction in transversely isotropic rocks using true-triaxial failure criteria, International Journal of Rock mechanics and Mining Sciences, Volume 112December 2018, Pages 313-322.
  7. Stress and Pore Pressure in Mudrocks Bounding Salt Systems, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Volume 51, Issue 12, pp 3883–3894.


GTS Digest – November 2018

What’s New

We just completed the first of the three-part webinar series on “Introduction to Petroleum Geomechanics” by Dr. Neal Nagel. The webinar was a success with more than 100 registered for the webinar. There would be two more, one in November and the other in December (please check the Upcoming Event section). Also, please access and review the geomechanics themed papers from recent conferences. Finally, deadline is approaching for few conferences, see below.

Submit your abstract for SPE/IATMI Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, 529-31 October 2019, Bali, Indonesia by November 30.

Submit your abstract for URTEC 2019 Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, 22-24 July 2019, Denver, USA by December 7.

Submit your abstract for SPE ATCE, 30 September-2 October 2019, Calgary, Canada by January 21, 2019.

Submit your abstract for OTC Brasil, 29-31 October 2019, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil by April 2, 2019.

Chair’s Corner

The GTS completed its first of a three-part webinar on fundamental petroleum geomechanics in mid-November (the other two parts were held in late November and early December). The webinar was well attended and the video version of the webinar is accessible from SPE.

The goal of the GTS is to serve its members through support of geomechanics training, education, and competence building for both new-hires and old hands. Look for additional webinars, workshops and even Podcasts going forward.

I would like to express my thanks to Dick Plumb for his service on the GTS board the last few years. Dick’s level-headedness as well as his extensive geomechanics knowledge will be missed. Edvard Omdal with ConocoPhillips Norway will replace Dick. Welcome to Edvard – and we expect great things!

Going forward, the GTS is in need of volunteer support. We have, for example, volunteers for the communications sub-committee, which is tasked with expanding the reach of GTS communications into the SPE community. Other volunteers are welcome for tasks such as: 1) review and updating the historical geomechanics documents (written or video) with SPE; 2) support for webinar and Podcast development; 3) support for workshop development.

Two workshops – one in China and one in Mexico – are just getting started. Keep an eye open for updates as they develop.

Also, place a note on your calendar that our next networking opportunity will be at the SPE HFTC in The Woodlands in early 2019.

I would again invite all of you who read this to take a moment and respond to me directly (nnagel@ofgeomech.com) with your thoughts on: 1) the role and activities of the GTS; 2) communications issues (or lack thereof); 3) the state of petroleum geomechanics as you see it; 4) interest in and/or restrictions on geomechanics and geomechanics training within your respective companies; and 5) what events might the GTS sponsor to address its role in supporting petroleum geomechanics. Obviously, other comments are welcome as well – even a simple “I receive GTS communications”.

Upcoming Events

  1. Part 2 and 3 of the three-part SPE webinar on Introduction to Petroleum Geomechanics, November 28 and December 12, 2018.   
  2. SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 5-7 February 2019, The Woodlands, Texas, USA.

  3. The Geological Society of London’s 4D Subsurface Modelling: Predicting the Future, 20-21 February 2019, London, UK.

  4. SPE Workshop: Sand and Carbonate Solids Control and Management - Towards Excellence in Integrated Solutions for Maximum Value Creation, 18 - 19 February 2019, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  5. SPE/IADC Drilling Conferenceand Exhibition, 5-7 March 2019, The Hague, Netherlands.

  6. International Petroleum Technology Conference, 26-28 March 2019, Beijing, China.

Guest Column

There is no guest commentary for November. If you are interested in contributing, please contact the SPE GTS.

Recent Papers

  1. Rock Fabric Analysis Based on Borehole Image Logs: Applications to Modeling Fracture Height Growth, SPE-191389-18IHFT-MS
  2. Activating Shale to Form Well Barriers: Theory and Field Examples, SPE-191607-MS
  3. Determination of the Optimal Bottomhole Pressure in Order to Reduce the Removal of the Solid Phase in the Weakly Consolidated Reservoir, SPE-191625-18RPTC-MS
  4. Enhanced Assessment of Stress Dependent Permeability of Sandstone Rock, SPE-192605-MS


GTS Digest – October 2018

What’s New

We are holding a three-part webinar series on “Introduction to Petroleum Geomechanics”. The webinar series is targeted towards a wide audience - from service approvers (management), to engineers and scientists who might be called upon to support and evaluate the value of geomechanics efforts but who do not have specific training in geomechanics. Presented as a three-part series, the webinars are laid out in a fashion from more general to more technical. Also, watch out for the recent papers sections covering recent conferences. Finally, deadline is approaching for a few conferences, see below.

Submit your abstract for 4D Seismic Modeling: Predicting the Future, by The Geological Society, 20-21 February 2019, London, UK by November 2.

Submit your abstract for SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, 5-7 March 2019, The Hague, Netherlands by November 12.

Submit your abstract for ARMA 53rd US Rock mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, 23-26 June 2019, New York City, USA by November 15.

Submit your abstract for SPE/IATMI Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, 529-31 October 2019, Bali, Indonesia by November 30.

Submit your abstract for URTEC 2019 Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, 22-24 July 2019, Denver, USA by December 7.

Chair’s Corner

The GTS continues to serve its members through support of geomechanics training, education, and competence building for both new-hires and old hands. The GTS has supported various networking events (with another planned for the SPE HFTC in early 2019), supported the recent SPE Forum on Geomechanics and will host the upcoming three-part webinar series on the basics of geomechanics.

Even with these activities, the GTS can do much more. First, we need volunteers to support the GTS in its various efforts. Second, but equally important, we need your ideas on prioritizing GTS efforts – for, again, both the new-hires and the old hands regardless of geomechanics knowledge and experience. This means we need feedback and comments, AND we need to ensure that GTS efforts are disseminated throughout the GTS membership and industry as a whole. Do you know a colleague or friend that would be interested in GTS information or news yet does not get these? If so, please share the GTS monthly newsletter and encourage them to sign up to receive the newsletter every month.

I would again invite all of you who read this to take a moment and respond to me directly (nnagel@ofgeomech.com) with your thoughts on: 1) the role and activities of the GTS; 2) communications issues (or lack thereof); 3) the state of petroleum geomechanics as you see it; 4) interest in and/or restrictions on geomechanics and geomechanics training within your respective companies; and 5) what events might the GTS sponsor to address its role in supporting petroleum geomechanics. Obviously, other comments are welcome as well – even a simple “I receive GTS communications”.

Upcoming Events

  1. SPE Workshop: Geomechanics and Pore Pressure Challenges of the Caspian and Analogous Basins, 23 - 24 Oct 2018, Baku, Azerbaijan.

  2. Three-part SPE webinar on Introduction to petroleum Geomechanics, November 14, 28 and December 12, 2018.

  3. The Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference (ADIPEC), 12-15 November 2018, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

  4. SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 5-7 February 2019, The Woodlands, Texas, USA.

  5. SPE Workshop: Sand and Carbonate Solids Control and Management - Towards Excellence in Integrated Solutions for Maximum Value Creation, 18 - 19 February 2019, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  6. SPE/IADC Drilling Conferenceand Exhibition, 5-7 March 2019, The Hague, Netherlands.

Guest Column – by Carl Montgomery, NSI-Premier Oilfield, Dowell "Rock mechanics Tidbits" from March 1980

Is there a difference in the elastic properties of a rock when these properties are determined under:

  1. Static vs. Dynamic conditions?
  2. Ambient vs. In-situ conditions?

Young’s modulus (E) and Poisson’s ratio (n) are two basic and very important elastic properties or moduli of rock. These elastic moduli are being investigated to determine if they can be used to define a barrier zone, and how fracture stimulation can be optimized (e.g., pump pressure, pump rate, fluid viscosity, etc.).

The elastic properties can be determined under either static or dynamic loading conditions but the results obtained will vary depending on which of the two methods is used. Under static loading conditions the load remains constant (no load added) or increases slowly, as is the case with overburden loading. Examples of dynamic loading are impact, resonance, or pulse propagation where the loading rate is quite rapid,

In addition to testing the sample, either statically or dynamically, it can also be loaded under uniaxial or triaxial conditions. With uniaxial loading the sample is loaded in only one direction, usually axially. With triaxial loading the sample is loaded both laterally (confining pressure) and axially. In general, the most accurate elastic moduli, for an in-situ sample, are obtained under static, triaxial loading conditions*. However, for practical reasons the elastic moduli are often determined under uniaxial conditions.

The main objective of this discussion is to emphasize that different values of elastic constants can be obtained depending on the method used. It is, therefore, important to know how the data was obtained and how the results very from one procedure to another.

Brace and Simmons (1965) have performed laboratory tests on two different rock types; diabase and granite. Figures 1 and 2 compare the static and dynamic values of E and n (ES, ED, nS, nD) for these two rock types. Figure 1 shows that ED is greater than ES for a particular rock type and that both ED and ES increase with increasing confining pressure.

Figure 2 show that nS is greater than nD for diabase and can be either greater or less than nD for granite. Also, nD and nS for granite increase with increasing confining pressure while nD and nS for diabase tend to approach each other. These curves do not represent all rock types but give a general trend of how E and n vary with increasing confining pressure.

NOTE: Results obtained in Dowell’s laboratory using the new triaxial cell and Berea sandstone cores showed the same trend as the granite in Figure 1 and 2. These results for both ambient and in-situ conditions are summarized in Table 1.

*Temperature can also affect the elastic moduli bit to a lesser degree than pressure. This will be discussed in more detail at a later date.

Recent Papers

1. The Strategic and Tactical Value of Geomechanics for Drilling Operational Excellence of ERD Well in Uzen Field, SPE 191632-18RPTC-MS.
2. A Novel Workflow for Fracture Reconstruction and Uncertainty Analysis for Unconventional Reservoir Development, SPE-191795-MS.
3. Analytical Model for Predicting Fracture Initiation Pressure from a Cased and Perforated Wellbore, SPE-191462-18IHFT-MS.
4. Mapping Stress Profile and Rock Quality Variation in Tight Gas Sandstone Across a Geological Setting, SPE-191387-18IHFT-MS.


GTS Digest – September 2018

What’s New

Summer is over, and we are looking forward to a busy fall schedule. We will have three webinars (more information coming soon) as well as SPE conferences. We also have a new face among our volunteers (Songxia Li, Petroleum Engineer, University Lands, Texas, USA) and would like to hear from our members about other volunteering opportunities. Finally, look into recent papers section where we highlighted few papers from 52nd US Rock Mechanics? and Geomechanics Symposium, Seattle, USA.

Submit your abstract for 4D Subsurface Modelling: Predicting the Future, by The Geological Society, 20 – 21 February 2019, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London, UK by 30th September. 
Submit your abstract for the special technical sessions in Structural Geology and Geomechanics in Unconventional Reservoir Development, AAPG Annual Conference & Exhibition, 19-22 May 2019, San Antonio, USA by 11th October.
Register now for SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference, 15-17 October, 2018, Moscow, Russia.
Register now for SPE International Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 16 - 18 Oct 2018, Muscat, Oman.
Register and contact now for speaking opportunity in SPE Workshop: Geomechanics and Pore Pressure Challenges of the Caspian and Analogous Basins, 23 - 24 Oct 2018, Baku, Azerbaijan.
Submit your abstract for SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, 5-7 March, 2019, The Hague, Netherlands by November 12.

Chair’s Corner

On behalf on the GTS board, I hope you had a nice and relaxing summer, had some well-earned vacation, and are ready to tackle the remainder of 2018.

The GTS is cranking up activities for the new year. We have a newly-created communications sub-committee to help get the word out on GTS activities (speaking of which, we are planning another networking opportunity at the Hydraulic Fracturing Technical Conference, HFTC, in early February 2019) including the 3-part webinar on geomechanics. We would also like to create an events sub-committee, which will be charged with developing and/or working with other organizations to host geomechanics-focused workshops and webinars. If you are interested in supporting the GTS, please contact me or any of the GTS board members.

We will also be issuing a survey on the GTS in the near-term. The goal of the survey will be to both gather information on the GTS membership, but, more importantly, to gather input on how the GTS can best support the petroleum geomechanics community.

Thanks for reading – and getting the word out to your colleagues on the GTS!

Upcoming Events

  1. SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference, 15-17 October, 2018, Moscow, Russia.
  2. SPE International Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 16-18 October 2018, Muscat, Oman.
  3. SPE Workshop: Geomechanics and Pore Pressure Challenges of the Caspian and Analogous Basins, 23 - 24 Oct 2018, Baku, Azerbaijan.
  4. The Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference (ADIPEC), 12-15 November 2018, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Guest Column – by Richard Plumb, Plumb Geomechanics, Why model the subsurface

The objective of the subsurface model is to capture current understanding about the geometry and spatial extent of subsurface formations, the formations’ material properties and their associated geochemical and mechanical behavior, and the contemporary stress field acting on them and how it changes in response to human activity, such as drilling, production, injection etc.

A model may start as a "cartoon" in a PowerPoint presentation, but to be most useful it soon evolves into a numerical representation in a software modelling package. Such models may be in one to four dimensions. One dimensional models are linear collections of information that come, most commonly, from a vertical wellbore. These will have a limited zone of validity but will be sufficient for some purposes during exploration. 2D and 3D models, on the other hand, are generated through correlation in additional dimensions and contain spatial information about subsurface formations and their physical and transport properties. Finally, 4D, or time-dependent models use repeated iterations of geometrical and material property information in a geomechanical simulator to predict if, where, and when subsurface deformation may occur. A classic example of the 4D modelling is one that is used to study the effects of compaction of a reservoir and surface subsidence due to production of hydrocarbons or the effects of hydraulic fracturing and fault movement due to fluid injection. 1, 2 and 3D models help reduce risk during a project's design, construction and operational phase whereas 4D models help to manage risk during an asset’s operational phase when oil or gas are extracted. The more accurate the model the fewer surprises and cost overruns.

However, realizing this value requires a willingness to acknowledge some uncomfortable factors including that:

  • knowledge of the subsurface is uncertain,
  • there are risks inherent in perturbing its equilibrium,
  • additional information and resources are often required to mitigate operational and financial risk, and
  • upfront investment in data acquisition and interpretation is needed to design and build these models –before subsurface difficulties are experienced.

Experience has shown that significant value from modelling is obtained if an iterative approach is adopted in a project's planning phase. Early modelling informs a project team where critical information is lacking in time to include data gathering/processing in the project budget. Iterative modelling fosters continuous organizational learning about a subsurface asset.  This in itself is a risk mitigation strategy against the unexpected. Such a learning cycle of iteration helps projects avoid a classic trap, namely, starting a model only after some un-planned and expensive event has already occurred, such as, after stuck pipe or well blowout has occurred. Experience has shown that in such situations there is not enough time to mobilize staff to find, process and interpret data, and to build a model to optimally affect the outcome of the incident. The most valuable models are ones started before the first test boring or the first geophysical survey is ordered.

So, why do we model the subsurface? Because holistic modelling done by a truly integrated and informed project team, using all available data-streams and covering all project stages:

  • improves operational safety,
  • improves project success,
  • helps to protect the environment, and
  • reduces overall project costs.

Finally, fundamental challenges faced by modelers often lead to development of new geoscience knowledge, new measurement technologies, improved software platforms and more effective engineering practice.

Recent Papers

  1. Evaluating Mechanical Damage and Closure Stress Effects on Hydraulic Fracture Treatments using Novel Geomechanics Laboratory Testing: Application to Julia Field, Gulf of Mexico, ARMA 2018-0430.
  2. Rock Physical Controls on Production-induces Compaction in the Groningen Field, Scientific Reports, (2018) 8:7156, DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-25455-z.
  3. Applied Wellbore Stability Analysis to Pyrenees Development Area: A Field Case, ARMA 2018-0851.
  4. An Integrated In-situ Stress Management Program for Deepwater Brown Field Developments, ARMA 2018-0171.
  5. Integration of 1D and 3D Mechanical Earth Models in Oil Shale Plays. An Example from the Vaca Muerta Formation (Argentina), ARMA 2018-0856.


GTS Digest – August 2018

What’s New

We just completed a very successful URTeC conference at Houston, USA last month. The theme of geomechanics was the largest in all 12 disciplines (look for selected few in the Recent papers section below, more to come in next month’s newsletter). We also had a great GTS networking event (see Chair’s Corner) during the conference. We will get back to you soon on our fall webinar schedule.

Register now for IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology Conference and Exhibition, 27 - 29 Aug 2018, Bangkok, Thailand.
Register now for SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference, 15-17 October, 2018, Moscow, Russia.
Register now for SPE International Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 16 - 18 Oct 2018, Muscat, Oman.
Register and contact now for speaking opportunity in SPE Workshop: Geomechanics and Pore Pressure Challenges of the Caspian and Analogous Basins, 23 - 24 Oct 2018, Baku, Azerbaijan.
Submit your paper proposal for SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 5-7 February, 2019, The Woodlands, Texas, USA by August 27.
Submit your abstract for SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, 5-7 March, 2019, The Hague, Netherlands by November 12.

Chair’s Corner

It is my hope, as well as the GTS board’s hope, that everyone is having a safe and enjoyable summer (in the northern hemisphere – our southern sisters and brothers are hopefully enjoying a nice winter season!). Safety for ourselves – and families – must remain a priority even in our busy lives.

The GTS held a very nice networking event at the July URTeC conference in Houston. The conversations were great as was the presentation from Dr. Mike Smith of NSI Technologies. Thanks goes to Any Santos of SPE for arranging the event as well as Premier Oilfield Group for sponsoring the event. Dr. Smith’s presentation will be available from the Premier Oilfield Group’s website.

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As we start another year for the Geomechanics Technical Section, look for details of the accomplishments of the GTS for 2017-18, as well as future plans, from the SPE website as well as future GTS newsletters.

I would like to again focus on communications. The success of the GTS – and ultimately its value – largely depends on being able to effectively communicate to the membership (more than 1500 strong!). Again, please make every effort to pass on the GTS newsletter to your coworkers and friends as well as encourage them to check their settings with SPE.org to ensure that they receive these communications. You can find the GTS webpage at SPE Connect. Please check it out.

Volunteer opportunities with the GTS abound – and if you are interested, or if you have ideas or questions about the GTS, please drop me a note (nnagel@ofgeomech.com ).

Upcoming Events

  1. IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology Conference and Exhibition, 27 - 29 Aug 2018, Bangkok, Thailand
  2. SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference, 15-17 October, 2018, Moscow, Russia.
  3. SPE International Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 16-18 October 2018, Muscat, Oman.
  4. SPE Workshop: Geomechanics and Pore Pressure Challenges of the Caspian and Analogous Basins, 23 - 24 Oct 2018, Baku, Azerbaijan.
  5. The Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference (ADIPEC), 12-15 November 2018, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Guest Column – by Marisela Sanchez-Nagel, Oilfield Geomechanics LLC

Geomechanics has historically been an important technical area for SPE and SPE has hosted many geomechanics workshops and forums. In July, the SPE geomechanics community joined in the 2018 FORUM SERIES in Colorado Spring, USA under the theme: “Drilling and Completion Geomechanics - Integrating Knowledge and Workflows to Maximize Asset Value.”

The Chairpersons for the Forum were Hazim Abass and Ron Dusterhoft of Halliburton and more than eighteen different nationalities were represented. Thanks goes to Hazim and Ron, as well as well as the rest of the organizing committee for assembling such a great Forum.

There were four and a half days of intense discussion, with participation of 21 service and consulting representatives, 18 from operating companies and 8 from academia. The primary focus of the forum was on the integration of geomechanics with multiple disciplines from exploration and geosciences through drilling, completion and production. The specific topics were:

  1. Geomechanics Model - The Value Proposition
  2. Local versus Regional Effects - Bridging Across Spatial and Temporal Domains
  3. Incorporating Geology, Geophysics and Petrophysics in Building the Realistic Geomechanical Model
  4. Technologies to Feed Future Geomechanics
  5. Uncertainty in Our Data and Quantifying the Risk
  6. Rock Fluid Interaction and Near Wellbore Effects
  7. Fit for Purpose Geomechanics: Simple versus Complex Approaches
  8. Geomechanics - Erasing the Boundaries between Conventionals and Unconventionals
  9. Incorporating Geomechanics into Operations to Maximize Value

Even though remarks and conclusions from the Forum cannot be disclosed, common ground was found between the many operators, services companies, and academia regarding the need to remain focused on geomechanics fundamentals, training and integration. The goal is to continue with these efforts through webinars, workshops and future forums to support the growth of the SPE geomechanics community and open paths for science and engineering practices.

Recent Papers

  1. Engineered Wellbore Strengthening Application Enables Successful Drilling of Challenging Wells, SPE-191219-MS
  2. Stress and Pore Pressure in Mudrocks Bounding Salt Systems, Nikolinakou, M.A., Flemings, P.B., Heidari, M. et al. Rock Mech Rock Eng (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-018-1540-z
  3. Novel Pore Pressure Prediction Technique for Unconventional Reservoirs, URTEC-2901731-MS
  4. The Importance of Overburden and Pore Pressure on Horizontal Stress Magnitude Determination; an Example from the Delaware Basin, URTEC-2901778-MS


GTS Digest – June 2018

What’s New

We are looking forward to 52nd ARMA US Rock Mechanics/ Geomechanics Symposium this month at Seattle, USA. The conference will host more than 120 talks focused on Petroleum Geomechanics (selected few will be showcased on next month’s Recent Paper section). We are also waiting eagerly for URTeC conference next month at Houston, USA which will host a separate networking reception for GTS members (see below for more details). Finally, keep an eye for details on GTS webinars.

The GTS will be holding a networking reception featuring Mike Smith, NSI Technologies as keynote speaker, on July 23 from 5:30 – 7:30p in conjunction with URTeC.  The event will be held in Room 352 D of the George R Brown Convention Center.  More details will follow soon. The event is by invitation only and attendees must RSVP to asantos@spe.org.

Register now for SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference, 15-17 October, 2018, Moscow, Russia.

Submit your paper proposal for SPE hydraulic fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 5-7 February, 2019, The Woodlands, Texas, USA.

Submit your abstract for SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, 5-7 March, 2019, The Hague, Netherlands.

Chair’s Corner

We have successfully navigated another year at the Geomechanics Technical Section. I would like to thank the board members of the GTS for their hard work as well as Any Santos at SPE for all the support she provides. Details of the accomplishments of the GTS for 2017-18, as well as future plans, will be provided to the membership next month and discussed at the GTS networking meeting at URTeC.

I would like to again take the opportunity to focus on communication. The success of the GTS – and ultimately its value – largely depends on being able to effectively communicate to the membership (more than 1500 strong!). Please make every effort to pass on the GTS newsletter to your coworkers and friends as well as encourage them to check their settings with SPE.org to ensure that they receive these communications. You can find the GTS webpage at SPE Connect. Please check it out.

The American Rock Mechanics Association meeting (ARMA 2018) in Seattle was just completed. It was good to see many GTS members there. Note that all ARMA papers will make it to OnePetro, so look for ARMA 2018 papers there shortly.

If you have ideas or questions about the GTS, please drop me a note (nnagel@ofgeomech.com). Also, if you would like to help, please contact me.

Have a safe and enjoyable summer!

Upcoming Events

  1. SPE Forum on Drilling and Completion Geomechanics – Integrating Knowledge and Workflows to Maximize Asset Value, 8-13 July, 2018, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA.
  2. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference (URTEC), 23-25 July, 2018, Houston, Texas, USA.
  3. SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference, 15-17 October, 2018, Moscow, Russia.
  4. SPE International Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 16-18 October 2018, Muscat, Oman.
  5. The Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference (ADIPEC), 12-15 November 2018, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Guest Column – Jeremy Viscomi, Premier Oilfield Group

It is with pleasure that Premier Oilfield Group will sponsor the Geomechanics Technical Section (GTS) network meeting at URTeC 2018 in Houston. We believe that geomechanics is an important part of oilfield drilling and completion operations and we are glad to support the GTS.

It is also with great pleasure that Mike Smith, a well-known and leading expert in hydraulic fracturing and a member of the Premier team, will make a brief presentation at the URTeC networking meeting. Mike’s abstract is below:

Title: Geomechanics in Unconventional Fracturing: The Most Difficult Problem We’ve Ever Faced?

For the past unconventional developments, attention has been largely focused on surface, operational considerations – with remarkable results. The industrial engineering results have created huge efficiency improvements - achieve­ments that would have been unbelievable just 5 years back. This allowed field developments to move forward despite financial obstacles. However, these achievements may have neared a peak.

If such is the case, attention must once again be focused on the sub-surface to gain further improvements, such as what is the optimum proppant volume, is more-and-more always better-and-better, and so on. Obviously we will not address all these questions in 20 minutes; however, it must be emphasized that this challenge for future improvements represents possibly the most difficult geotechnical challenge ever faced. A few of these challenges might include:

  • Thin laminations – A thin high stress layer is generally a better fracture barrier than a thicker, lower stress layer. Does this extend to layer thicknesses on the order of centimeters?
  • Layers with higher stiffness create reduced width. How thick must such a layer be to form a “pinch point” and affect proppant settling?
  • Fracture Interference – Theory says that more stress interference should occur as fractures get closer and closer, but field evidence says shorter stages with more clusters may perform better. Is there a contradiction here?
  • “Frac Hits” – What is the effect of depletion and fracturing from multiple-wells on fracture propagation and asymmetry?
  • ?????

This presentation will concentrate on the first question above – effect of thin laminations on fracture propagation. A few notes will also be included on the effect of material properties, specifically modulus, on fracture width profiles.

Recent Papers

  1. Understanding Lost Circulation While Cementing: Field Study and Laboratory Research, SPE-184673-PA
  2. Natural Fractures and Mechanical Properties in a Horn River Shale Core From Well Logs and Hardness Measurements, SPE-174287-PA
  3. Production-Pressure-Drawdown Management for Fractured Horizontal Wells in Shale-Gas Formations, SPE-181365-PA
  4. Engineering Prediction of Axial Wellbore Shear Failure due to Reservoir Uplift and Subsidence, SPE-189981-PA
  5. Investigation of Production-Induced Stress Changes for Infill-Well Stimulation in Eagle Ford Shale, SPE-189974-PA


GTS Digest – May 2018

What’s New

Summer is here and we are looking forward to few top-tier technical conferences - ARMA, DFNE, URTEC (see below) in the next couple of months. We will also get together for SPE Drilling and Completions Geomechanics Forum and have a networking session concurrent to URTEC (watch this space for date and time information), both on July. Finally, we would also have three webinars (see Guest Column for more details) later this year.

Register now for American Rock Mechanics Association’s 52nd US Rock Mechanics/ Geomechanics Symposium, 17-20 June 2018, Seattle, Washington,USA.
Register now for 2nd International Discrete Fracture Network Engineering Conference DFNE 2018 20-22 June 2018, Seattle, Washington,USA.
Register now for Unconventional Resources Technology Conference (URTEC), 23-25 July, 2018, Houston, Texas, USA.

Chair’s Corner

Two significant GTS events are going to occur during the summer and early fall. During the summer, the GTS will hold another networking opportunity during URTeC, which will be held in Houston. Look for additional information on this networking meeting in this newsletter and next month’s newsletter. In addition, see the Guest Column for the write-up by Marisela Sanchez-Nagel about the GTS webinars planned for this fall.

I have a favor to ask….

As many of you know, there will be an SPE Forum on geomechanics in completions and drilling in early July. However, interest in the event has been modest at best. My question is “Why?”. Is it a communication issue? Is it a lack of interest in geomechanics? Is it restrictions on travel budgets?

I would invite all of you who read this to take a moment and respond to me directly (nnagel@ofgeomech.com) with your thoughts on: 1) the role and activities of the GTS; 2) communications issues (or lack thereof); 3) the state of petroleum geomechanics as you see it; 4) interest in and/or restrictions on geomechanics and geomechanics training within your respective companies. Obviously, other comments are welcome as well – even a simple “I receive GTS communications”. I will report next month on the responses. Thanks!

Upcoming Events

  1. AAPG workshop titled Pore Pressure and geomechanics: From Exploration to Abandonment, 6-7 June 2018, Perth, Australia.
  2. 52nd US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium by American Rock Mechanics Association, 17-20 June 2018, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  3. 2nd International Discrete Fracture Network Engineering Conference DFNE 2018 20-22 June 2018, Seattle, Washington, USA.
  4. SPE Forum on Drilling and Completion Geomechanics – Integrating Knowledge and Workflows to Maximize Asset Value, 8-13 July, 2018, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA.
  5. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference (URTEC), 23-25 July, 2018, Houston, Texas, USA.
  6. SPE International Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 16-18 October 2018, Muscat, Oman.
  7. The Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference (ADIPEC), 12-15 November 2018, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Guest Column – Marisela Sanchez-Nagel, Oilfield Geomechanics

Particularly with the development of Unconventional Plays, the interest in, and need for, petroleum geomechanics has greatly increased. However, as with many highly-technical but lesser-known disciplines, there is significant confusion over what the field of geomechanics encompasses, what value it can deliver, and how, for example, to initiate a geomechanics program. As a continuing effort to support the petroleum geomechanics community, the SPE Geomechanics Technical Section (GTS) has developed and will present a three-part webinar series in the fall of 2018 on petroleum geomechanics.

This three-part webinar series is focused on introducing the basics of geomechanics and geomechanics applications, to a wide audience from service approvers (management) to engineers and scientists who might be called upon to support and evaluate the value of geomechanics efforts, but who do not have specific training in geomechanics. While presented as a three-part series, the webinars are laid out in a fashion from more general to more technical. In addition, the intention is to generate a Spanish-language version of the first webinar.

Structurally, the first webinar is intended to present a high-level explanation and background on geomechanics for individuals who would both consider the need for geomechanics as well as determine the value for specific oil & gas applications. What geomechanics is (and isn’t) will be discussed as well as some history and explanation of what geomechanics technical competence might look like. Dr. Neal Nagel with OilField Geomechanics LLC will present this.

The second and third webinars are focused on specific technical issues surround geomechanics: formation stress, formation pressure, formation mechanical properties (and strength), and the influence of geometry. In a fair amount of detail, stress will be explained as well as its implications. Similarly, formation pressure (and the effect of pressure changes during production) will be presented. Then, formation mechanical properties and strength will be discussed, particularly in light of oil and gas operations (e.g., drilling a wellbore or depleting a reservoir). These two webinars will conclude with a presentation of the criticality of geometric issues, such as fault location and orientation and lithological variations, on geomechanics evaluations. These webinars will be presented by Dr. Richard Plumb with Plumb Geomechanics LLC and Dr. Marisela Sanchez-Nagel with OilField Geomechanics LLC.

Recent Papers

  1. Mitigating Wellbore Stability Challenges of Extended-Reach Drilling in Overpressure and Naturally Fractured Formations, OTC-28421-MS
  2. Geomechanical Evaluations Coupled with Optimised Drilling Practices and Fluid Design Helped in Successful Drilling Through Coal in Offshore Peninsular Malaysia and Vietnam, OTC-28410-MS
  3. Engineering Prediction of Axial Wellbore Shear Failure due to Reservoir Uplift and Subsidence, SPE-189981-PA
  4. Investigation of Production-Induced Stress Changes for Infill-Well Stimulation in Eagle Ford Shale, SPE-189974-PA


GTS Digest – April 2018

What’s New

As April arrives, we are preparing ourselves for a lot of geomechanics activities (see Chair’s Corner below for a summary). We also have a guest column featuring an industry veteran. Also, we have listed the upcoming events and few recent papers of interest. Finally, watch for the deadlines for participation/abstract submission for various events.

Register now for SPE/EAGE Workshop on The Future of Geomechanics in Brown Fields and Unconventionals, 2-3 May, 2018, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

The deadline for application to participate in SPE Forum on Drilling and Completion Geomechanics – Integrating Knowledge and Workflows to maximize Asset Value, 8-13 July, 2018, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA is 24th April.

The deadline for abstract submission for The Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference (ADIPEC), 12-15 November 2018, Abu Dhabi, UAE is 1st May.

Chair’s Corner

This monthly “newsletter” is put together by the SPE Geomechanics Technical Section (GTS) and sent out via email to SPE GTS members who have opted to receive these notifications. Blog postings from SPE Connect are also opt-in communications. When you receive this, please mention it to geomechanics folks in your network and, if they do not receive it, encourage them to enable this function in their SPE profile. Clearly the information in the monthly newsletter and blog postings is of no value if people are not able to get them!

Look for lots of geomechanics activities in the next several months with the SPE Geomechanics Forum in early July, the ARMA conference in late June and the URTeC conference in late July. The GTS will be hosting a get-together at URTeC – please look for additional information in time and place and let your network know about this event.

Question of the month: How do we define the value of geomechanics? Please think about this and drop me a note (nnagel@ofgeomech.com) or, better, respond via the GTS site under SPE Connect. As I indicated in recent blog post, within the industry geomechanics has historically been considered a call-out or “fire-fighting” service. Is this changing…and if so, why?

Upcoming Events

  1. SPE-GCS event titled Geomechanics Congress: Recent Advances in Petroleum Geomechanics, 18 April 2018, Houston, Texas, USA.
  2. SPE/EAGE Workshop on The Future of Geomechanics in Brown Fields and Unconventionals, 2-3 May, 2018, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
  3. AAPG workshop titled Pore Pressure and geomechanics: From Exploration to Abandonment, 6-7 June 2018, Perth, Australia.
  4. SPE Forum on Drilling and Completion Geomechanics – Integrating Knowledge and Workflows to maximize Asset Value, 8-13 July, 2018, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA.
  5. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference (URTEC), 23-25 July, 2018, Houston, Texas, USA.
  6. SPE International Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 16-18 October 2018, Muscat, Oman.
  7. The Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference (ADIPEC), 12-15 November 2018, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Guest Column – Carl Montgomery, NSI Technologies, shared his old Dowell Rock Mechanics Tidbits Series

An early Rock Mechanics Tidbits on Wellbore Shrinkage

How much will my hole shrink due to stress relief when I drill through a formation?

According to a paper by Brady and Bray1, a formation having an average Poisson’s Ration of 0.25 (this is an average number for sandstone formations) the wellbore will shrink by a value of 16/1000 R, where R is the radius of the hole. So, in a 9-7/8” hole drilled through sandstone, the wellbore will shrink 16/1000 x 9-7/8” = 158/1000 = ~1/6” maximum due to the stress field. Not a whole bunch to worry about. This is immediate relief and does not take into account long term expansion due to rigidity, e.g., clays swelling, etc.

1Brady, B.H.G. and Bray, J.W. The boundary Element Method for Determining Stresses and Displacements Around Long Openings in a Triaxial Stress Field, V. 15, pp 21-28, Int. J. Rock. Mech.

Recent Papers

  1. A Practical Model for Wellbore Strengthening, SPE-1899589-MS
  2. Ma, X. and Zoback, M. 2018. Static and Dynamic Response of Bakken Cores to Cyclic Hydrostatic Loading. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering (2018)

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-018-1443-z

  1. How to Test for Compatibility Between Fluids and Shales, SPE-189633-MS


GTS Digest – March 2018

What’s New

The March Issue addresses the immediate issues/challenges faced by geomechanics community (see Chair’s Corner below) and a guest column featuring a forum trying to address those challenges. Also, we have listed the upcoming events (seven in total in 2018!) and few recent papers of interest. Finally, watch for the deadlines for participation/abstract submission for various events.

Call for speaker now open for SPE/EAGE Workshop on The Future of Geomechanics in Brown Fields and Unconventionals, 2-3 May, 2018, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

The deadline for abstract submission for SPE International Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 16-18 October, 2018, Muscat, Oman is 18th March.

The deadline for application to participate in SPE Forum on Drilling and Completion Geomechanics – Integrating Knowledge and Workflows to maximize Asset Value, 8-13 July, 2018, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA is 24th April.

The deadline for abstract submission for The Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference (ADIPEC), 12-15 November 2018, Abu Dhabi, UAE is 1st May.

Chair’s Corner

There are lots of new and exciting opportunities to learn and participate in Petroleum Geomechanics events. If you want to grow your competence or just grow your network, these really are excellent opportunities. In addition, please consider submitting ideas and/or volunteering for the SPE Geomechanics Technical Section. We definitely want your feedback.

Primarily with the development of Unconventional Resources, interest and participation in Petroleum Geomechanics has really taken off. In addition, we are seeing more companies create and support a full-time geomechanics position (as opposed to, historically, a geologist or reservoir engineer that was given the responsibility for geomechanics in addition to their day job!). This has created nice opportunities, some drawbacks, but also confusion over what geomechanics is, its role, and, ultimately, how it can add value.

The opportunities issue is clear from the number of companies looking for and hiring geomechanics folks. The drawbacks are associated with any new (-ish: the concepts of geomechanics are 100s of years old) technical discipline in that geomechanics folks were particularly hit hard in the recent industry downturn. The confusion issue is likely the more critical; how do we explain what geomechanics is (and isn’t), find it a proper home in modern organizational structures, and, confirm and advance the value of geomechanics to management and shareholders.

It is this last issue, the confusions about geomechanics, that I want the Geomechanics Technical Section (GTS) to focus on. Look for our upcoming webinar series on the basics of geomechanics (a 3-part series with the first webinar intended as a more management-level overview and the latter two focused on more in-depth issues around stress, pressure, and rock mechanical properties). Also, the GTS is supporting Forum opportunities as well as training opportunities and networking later in 2018.

We are also hosting a 3-4 paragraph Guest Discussion section (see the section by Hazim Abass about the upcoming Geomechanics Forum as an example). If you have a comment or issue that can be presented in short order (again, 3-4 paragraphs), please drop me a line. Thanks and see you next month!

Upcoming Events

  1. ARMA-DGS workshop on The Role of Geomechanics in Stimulation, 3-5 April 2018, Manama, Bahrain.
  2. SPE-GCS event titled Geomechanics Congress: Recent Advances in Petroleum Geomechanics, 18 April 2018, Houston, Texas, USA.
  3. SPE/EAGE Workshop on The Future of Geomechanics in Brown Fields and Unconventionals, 2-3 May, 2018, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
  4. AAPG workshop titled Pore Pressure and geomechanics: From Exploration to Abandonment, 6-7 June 2018, Perth, Australia.
  5. SPE Forum on Drilling and Completion Geomechanics – Integrating Knowledge and Workflows to maximize Asset Value, 8-13 July, 2018, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA.
  6. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference (URTEC), 23-25 July, 2018, Houston, Texas, USA.
  7. SPE International Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 16-18 October 2018, Muscat, Oman.
  8. The Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference (ADIPEC), 12-15 November 2018, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Guest Column – featuring Hazim Abbas, Halliburton

Drilling and Completion Geomechanics - Integrating Knowledge and Workflows to Maximize Asset Value

8-13 July 2018 – Cheyenne Mountain Resort, Colorado Spring, Colorado, USA

This forum is designed to exchange knowledge on the role of geomechanics in solving upstream challenges from drilling to abandonment through better understanding the evolution of the stress field throughout all phases of upstream operations. Professionals from all disciplines will get together to draw a map for integrating efforts on connecting the dots of geomechanics appeared from drilling, completion and production to manage and extend the life of a reservoir.

Discussion on critical issues will be encouraged such that: how to integrate geomechanics knowledge obtained during drilling and completion to solve problems in reservoir management?, how to develop a model to describe the dynamic near-wellbore stress field during drilling, completion, and production?, what geomechanics topics should be addressed that have not been considered so far to optimize reservoir management and hydrocarbon recovery? what geomechanical data/information can we gather as we drill a well that can help complete and then produce the well?

In summary, the theme of this forum is based on a simple question; how do we bring mechanisms into geomechanics? We hope you join us to share and listen to what the industry should focus on as related to the significance of rock deformation in producing energy to the world.

Recent Papers

  1. Interaction Between Proppant Compaction and Single-/Multiphase Flows in a Hydraulic Fracture, SPE-189985-PA
  2. Fang, X. 2018. A Revisit to The Lekhnitskii-Amadei Solution for Borehole Stress Calculation in Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 104 (2018) 113–118
  3. Zhang, Y and Zhang, J. 2017. Lithology-dependent minimum horizontal stress and in-situ stress estimate. Tectonophysics 703-704 (2017) 1-8

 

GTS Digest – February 2018

What’s New

We had the first successful GTS networking event for 2018 on January 26th at SPE HFTC held at The Woodlands, Texas (see Chair Corner below for more information on this).

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SPE Canada Unconventional Resources Conference and SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference will be held concurrently on 13-14 March,2018 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. There will be several papers plus an entire section devoted to geomechanics as applicable to E&P operations.

American Rock Mechanics Association, together with Dhahran geoscience society, is organizing a workshop on The Role of Geomechanics in Stimulation, to be held in Manama, Bahrain from April 3rd to 5th. The workshop will host training sessions and have separate sessions on technology highlights, operator’s perspective and case studies.

The deadline for abstract submission for SPE Liquids-Rich Basin conference – North America, 5-6 September, 2018, Midland, Texas, USA is 19th February.

The deadline for abstract submission for SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference, 15-17 October, 2018, Moscow, Russia is 16th March.

The deadline for abstract submission for SPE International Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 16-18 October, 2018, Muscat, Oman is 18th March.

Chair’s Corner

As I have discussed before, a primary goal of the Geomechanics Technical Section (GTS) is to add value to its members – value in the form of information, resources, networking and the like. Obviously, this value is “in-the-eye-of-the-beholder” so we need your input and ideas on how to achieve this. Please feel free to contact me, another GTS officer, or even use the GTS blog (via SPE Connect) to let us know your ideas and thoughts.

The GTS held a networking gathering at the recent SPE HFTC in The Woodlands. Thanks to the 30+ attendees for the great discussions and ideas. Also, thanks to OilField Geomechanics LLC for sponsoring the event. The attendees expressed strong support for additional networking opportunities, so look for announcements of these throughout 2018. Most importantly, we will try to get something for the URTeC conference in Houston in July.

Upcoming plans include: 1) webinars on basic geomechanics; 2) support for the SPE Forum on Drilling and Completion Geomechanics; 3) networking opportunities; and 4) geomechanics workshop(s) in Latin America. Look for updates on this going forward.

Upcoming Events

  1. SPE Canada Unconventional Resources Conference and SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference, 13-14 March,2018 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. There will be papers and an entire section devoted to geomechanics as applicable to E&P operations.
  2. SPE Offshore Technology Conference Asia (OTC Asia), 20-23 March, 2018 in Kuala Lampur, Malayasia.
  3. ARMA-DGS workshop on The Role of Geomechanics in Stimulation, 3-5 April, Manama, Bahrain.
  4. SPE-GCS event titled Geomechanics Congress: Recent Advances in Petroleum Geomechanics, 18 April, Houston, Texas, USA.

Guest Column – featuring Richard Plumb, Plumb Geomechanics LLC

Geomechanics technical Section: Membership Report 2017

The Geomechanics Technical section (GMTS) had 1398 members at the end of 2017. 

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Figure 1. Age distribution of GMTS members.

Membership in the GMTS represents all the major petroleum producing regions, globally, with the greatest concentrations located in the US and Europe.  The majority of members identify themselves as engineers or geoscientists while the next most populous groups represent managers, students, and the research and development community. Membership is highly skewed to those who are new to SPE (see Figure 1). 

Figure 2 shows the geographic distribution of experience for Engineers and Geology and Geophysics (G&G) members.  Notice that the years of experience in a region is greater for Engineers than for G&G but the median experience of both groups is only about 5 years, globally.

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Figure 2a. Years that GMTS Engineers have been a member of SPE by geographic region.  Years as a member is taken as a proxy for years of experience. The vertical black lines represent the range of experience in a region, the colored dots represent the median years as an SPE member2b. Geographic distribution of G&G experience. 

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The take home message is that our technical community is a young crowd. While the fundamentals of geomechanics are the same, where they are applied and the technology that is employed is very different from the situation 25-30 years ago. It would be interesting to hear from members how you think the practice of Geomechanics has changed in the past 30 years.  How has the drive to cut costs and increase efficiency affected our community?

Recent Papers

  1. An Engineered Approach to Hydraulically Fracture the Vaca Muerta Shale (SPE-189866-MS)
  2. Hydraulic fracture Height Growth Under the Combined influence of Stress Barriers and Natural Fractures (SPE-189861-MS)
  3. Experimental and Numerical investigation of Shear Stimulation and Permeability Evolution in Shales (SPE-189887-MS)